In the paper released on Wednesday, the Chinese government said science and technology should benefit all people, and not be used to limit the development of any country.
“A few countries must not mix their hegemonic thinking with the governance of new technology, generalise the idea of national security, and fortify their small backyard with advantages in technologies,” it said.
It also expressed opposition to the militarisation of cyberspace, the blanket use of “national security” as grounds to deny others the legitimate right to development, and the proliferation of cyberattack technologies turning cyberspace into a new battlefield of geopolitical competition.
The paper comes as Washington and its allies seek to maintain a technological edge over Beijing with various measures such as banning sales of advanced semiconductor chips and manufacturing equipment to China.
But the document went beyond technology.
Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman Mao Ning said the paper “comprehensively elaborated on China’s positions and propositions on key areas of global governance such as peace, security, development, human rights, and society, as well as on institutional reform”.
“The Japanese government should … stop the discharge of nuclear-contaminated water, communicate fully with neighbouring countries in a sincere manner, and accept strict international supervision in order to ensure that the nuclear-contaminated water is disposed of in a scientific, safe and transparent manner,” the document said.
The paper also repeated China’s complaints over “politicisation” of and “double standards” on human rights.
The Chinese paper said: “Human rights should not be used as an excuse to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries and to block and curb their development.”
As one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, China said the demands of Africa should be given priority in reform of the council.
“The UN Security Council should not become a club for big and rich countries,” the paper said.
“Reform must effectively increase the representation and voice of developing countries, redress historical injustices in Africa and give more developing countries with independent foreign policies and impartial positions the opportunity to join the council and take part in its decision-making.”